Earthwork in excavation in foundations

Excavation – Trenches shall be dug to exact width of foundation and to the maximum should be vertical (vertically especially to maximum height as the thickness of lean concrete is 8 to 10 inches. In case of loose soil, extra payment for shoring may be required to retain the soil. Material shall be placed minimum … Continue reading

Elements of Design

Point # A point marks a position in space, conceptually has no length, width or depth and is therefore static and dimensionless or directionless. # As the prime element in the vocabulary of form point can serve to mark-: The two ends of a line The intersection of two lines The center of a field … Continue reading

Design Process

Design Process -: It order to develop a good design, we must go by the design process. It involves various steps- Goals Aims & Objectives Requirements are framed out Library study is conducted Case Study Concept is formulated Design formulation (1) Setting of Goals: Before starting a design project, goals are formulated and these goals … Continue reading


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