Changing trends in cities

# “Concept of Neighborhood” was introduced with changing trend in society. Neighborhood is basically a self contained community which provides maximum social interaction to the inhabitants and basic components are the housing clusters, neighborhood center, education facilities, recreational facilities and circulation network.
• Planning of “Housing Cluster” is based upon the income group of the people. The clusters are divided into low income group housing, middle and high income housing and standard of facilities vary according to the income group of people.
• Planning of the Neighborhood Centre is done in such a way so that it is easily accessible from all housing cluster and should be within range of 1km from all clusters.
• Recreational areas- follow hierarchy in terms of parks, open spaces, eating joints etc. Hierarchy of recreational areas is maintained in terms of neighborhood parks, cluster parks and the tot-lots (in between each cluster there can be a separate informal activity areas.
• Educational areas- basically provided in terms of kindergartens, nursery schools and primary schools (basically meant for small kids). Accessibility of educational areas is preferred from secondary roads rather than main highways and generally the way to these areas should be pedestrianized.
• Circulation areas- hierarchy of these is maintained from peripheral paths. Internal loop roads connect the various clusters and access roads provide access to various housing units. Depending upon hierarchy, width of road varies. Attempt should be made so that maximum roads are along north-south direction so as to avoid direct glare of Sun.

# “Concept of Social Institutions”:
Theses are basically meant for the welfare of the society and work under certain norms set by the society. These institutions work in a group and groups are divided into – primary and secondary groups.
• Primary groups – where people are in direct contact with each other.
• Secondary group – people are in indirectly contact with each other i.e. Through Internet, telephones, correspondence.

There are certain rules according to which a person has to behave in the society and these rules are called the basic norms. Each person is assigned with a task in society which is defined as the role of a person and the concept of burocracy is followed. These institutions let the person take that topic which he or she can carry easily.


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